Donut earth facts

What do you say we try to survive on an Earth with a giant hole in the middle? Would a planet like this even have a chance of being habitable?

donut earth facts

Would it still have the Moon? How would gravity work? And what would the view be like on an Earth like this? Planetarily speaking, size matters, and so does shape.

This is what mathematicians would call a toroidal world, or a torus planet. But the laws of physics do allow for such worlds to exist. Having a center that is so much larger than the physically solid portion of Earth would result in some very unstable conditions. See what I mean? This donut-shaped Earth would have a similar position relative to the Sun, and the same axial tilt. It would even have a similar escape velocity of So if you were to send rockets into space, that would be the best place to break free of the gravitational clutches of a donut-shaped Earth.

If our round Earth has surface gravity of 1 G, the surface gravity of a donut Earth along the poles would be 0. At the equator, the gravity would go down to just 0. It would be like walking on the surface of Mars. To fight the urge to become a sphere-shaped Earth, a donut Earth would have to spin much faster than our round Earth does. That way, centrifugal forces would kick in and keep the donut hole intact.

But because of this quick rotation, a day on Earth would only last 2 hours and 50 minutes. But it would be much worse for the animals that are synced to the patterns of the Moon and the Sun to breed, migrate and hunt. By the way, what would happen to the Moon? Most likely, it would be pulled towards the hole, and bob up and down in the middle of the planet.

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The bad news is, either of these orbits would affect the tides on Earth, and wreak a little havoc. Oceans could have such unstable water levels that having coastal cities might not be a thing.

The overall climate on donut Earth would be similar to what we currently have on our round Earth.Can I grow a tree from the seed of this peach? You'll find tips for slashing heating bills, growing fresh, natural produce at home, and more. That's why we want you to save money and trees by subscribing through our earth-friendly automatic renewal savings plan. Top 10 Reasons to Try a Donut Peach. Most peaches found in the United States have yellow flesh, but many white-flesh peaches are starting to show up in our grocery stores, too.

Saturn' peaches are among the very best of the white-flesh varieties. Saturn' peaches have an unusually flat shape, and are named for their resemblance to the rings of Saturn. They're also called 'Donut' or? Doughnut' peaches. In fact, many supermarkets package the flat peaches in long boxes like those used for doughnuts, and market them as a good-for-you snack food.

So what's so great about? Saturn' peaches? They taste better than other peaches. They're sweeter, with almond overtones. They are lower in acid than other peaches. The pit doesn't cling to the flesh, so it's easy to pop out with your thumb. The fruit's thin, red skin has little or no fuzz, so it doesn't have to be peeled. Their small size lends itself to being eaten out of hand. The frost-hardy, highly pest- and disease-resistant trees are easy to grow in most areas.

You can count on? Saturn' peach trees to produce an abundant harvest? The trees bloom earlier in the spring than other varieties, and put on an absolutely spectacular show of pink blossoms. Most of the nursery stock is now grafted to dwarf roots, making easy work of pruning and harvesting.

15 Delicious Facts About Doughnuts

By planting a rarer variety of peach, you are helping to preserve biodiversity and maintain diverse seed stocks for generations to come. Peaches are easy for home gardeners to grow. The following mail-order nurseries offer bare-root? Saturn' peach trees. Plan to order them in the winter for early spring planting. To learn more, read Saturn Peaches in the Oct. Share your thoughts. Betty Gifford. Related Content. Homegrown Berries.The Doughnutor Doughnut economicsis a visual framework for sustainable development — shaped like a doughnut or lifebelt — combining the concept of planetary boundaries with the complementary concept of social boundaries.

The centre hole of the model depicts the proportion of people that lack access to life's essentials healthcareeducationequity and so on while the crust represents the ecological ceilings planetary boundaries that life depends on and must not be overshot. Consequently, an economy is considered prosperous when all twelve social foundations are met without overshooting any of the nine ecological ceilings.

This situation is represented by the area between the two rings, namely the safe and just space for humanity. The social foundations are inspired by the social aims of the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations.

On the social foundation, no life-essential is met for everyone. Mostly health, political voice and social equity are under the just space. Of the ecological ceilings, climate change, nitrogen and phosphorus loading, land conversion and biodiversity loss are overshot while ozone layer depletion, ocean acidification and freshwater withdrawals are within the planetary boundaries.

The boundaries for air pollution and chemical pollution are not quantified. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Economic model. Main article: Planetary boundaries. Oxfam Discussion Papers. World Economic Forum.

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Retrieved 4 January The Guardian. Retrieved 5 January Vermont: White River Junction. Categories : Economics models Ecological economics. Hidden categories: Articles with short description. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.Rapper B.

B wants to crowdfund his own satellite and launch it into space to find out, once and for all, whether the Earth is flat or round. B himself.

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Fortunately, there are plenty of cheaper ways than a satellite launch to show that the Earth is round. In the spirit of scientific inquiry, here are seven. When a ship sails off toward the horizon, it doesn't just get smaller and smaller until it's not visible anymore.

Instead, the hull seems to sink below the horizon first, then the mast. When ships return from sea, the sequence is reversed: First the mast, then the hull, seem to rise over the horizon. The ship-and-horizon observation is so self-evident that 's "Zetetic Astronomy," the first modern flat-Earth text, devotes a chapter to "debunking" it. The explanation relies on assuming that the sequential disappearance is simply an illusion brought on by perspective. This debunking does not make much sense, however, as there's nothing about perspective which just says that things are smaller over longer distances that should make the bottom of an object disappear before the top.

If you'd like to prove to yourself that perspective isn't the reason for boats disappearing hull-first and returning mast-first, bring a telescope or binoculars on your trip to the harbor. Even with vision enhancement, the ship will still dip below the curve of the Earth.

Greek philosopher Aristotle figured out this one in B. Different constellations are visible from different latitudes. Probably the two most striking examples are the Big Dipper and the Southern Cross. The Big Dipper, a set of seven stars that looks like a ladle, is always visible at latitudes of 41 degrees North or higher.

Below 25 degrees South, you can't see it at all. And in northern Australia, just north of that latitude, the Big Dipper just barely squeaks above the horizon. Meanwhile, in the Southern Hemisphere, there's the Southern Cross, a bright four-star arrangement. That constellation isn't visible until you travel as far south as the Florida Keys in the Northern Hemisphere.

These different stellar views make sense if you imagine the Earth as a globe, so that looking "up" really means looking toward a different sliver of space from the Southern or Northern hemisphere.

Aristotle also bolstered his belief in a round Earth with the observation that during lunar eclipses, the Earth's shadow on the face of the sun is curved. Since this curved shape exists during all lunar eclipses, despite the fact that Earth is rotating, Aristotle correctly intuited from this curved shadow that the Earth is curvy all around — in other words, a sphere.

For that matter, solar eclipses also tend to bolster the idea that the planets, moons and stars are a bunch of roundish objects orbiting each other. If the Earth is a disk and the stars and planets a bunch of small, nearby objects hovering in a dome above the surface, as many flat-Earthers believe, the total solar eclipse that crossed North America in August becomes very difficult to explain.

This is another one of those self-evident things: You can see farther if you go higher. If the Earth was flat, you'd be able to see the same distance no matter your elevation.

Think about it: Your eye can detect a bright object, like the Andromeda galaxy, from 2. Seeing the lights of, say, Miami from New York City a distance of a mere 1, miles or 1, kilometers on a clear evening should be child's play. But it's not. That's because the curvature of the Earth limits our sight to about 3.

Anyone can circumnavigate the globe nowadays; there are even travel firms, like AirTreks, that specialize in multi-stop, round-the-world routes. You won't have to retrace your steps to land where you started. If you get lucky enough to get an unobscured view of the horizon and a high enough commercial flight, you might even be able to make out the curvature of the Earth with the naked eye. According to a paper in the journal Applied Optics, the Earth's curve becomes subtly visible at an altitude of around 35, feet, as long as the observer has at least a 60 degree field of view which may be difficult from a passenger plane window.

The curvature becomes more readily apparent above 50, feet; passengers on the now-grounded supersonic Concorde jet were often treated to a view of the curved horizon while flying at 60, feet. In JanuaryUniversity of Leicester students strapped some cameras to a weather balloon and sent it skyward. The balloon rose 77, feet Each time you look up to the sky and see a star you are looking at a sun in another galaxy.

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If you were on another planet looking back at our solar system, you would see our sun as a star. Our Milky Way galaxy has more planets than it has stars. In our solar system we have eight planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are the inner rocky planets. Jupiter and Saturn are the outer gas giants. Uranus and Neptune are the outer ice giants. Earth is the third planet from the sun. If you notice, except for Earth, all of the planets in our solar system are named after Roman and Greek gods and goddesses.

Astronomers of ancient times thought that the Earth was the center of the universe and the sun as well as all of the planets orbited around Earth. They also thought that the Earth was static and never changed or moved. This idea was part of many cultures for over 2, years. About 4. Earth is one of the terrestrial planets, which means it has a central core, rocky mantle, and a crust that is solid.

Our Earth orbits the sun every The axis of rotation of the Earth is tilted The outer core is made up of iron and nickel fluids.

Wedged in between the outer core and the crust is the mantle which is the thickest of all of the layers. Just like Venus and Mars, Earth has mountains, volcanoes, and valleys. This movement causes the plates to collide to create mountains, split or separate, or rub against each other and create earthquakes.

The average depth of the ocean is around 2. Almost every one of the volcanoes on Earth is hidden under these oceans. The Mauna Kea volcano in Hawaii is taller from the base to the top than Mount Everest, but a majority of the volcano is underwater.

The longest mountain range on Earth is also underwater, at the bottom of the Atlantic and Arctic oceans. This mountain range is four times longer than the Rockies, Andes, and Himalayas all combined. Land has continents, islands, and other land masses as well as sources of fresh water. Many scientists believe that water was delivered to the Earth by comets and asteroids as it was forming and that much of the water was inside the planet and then brought up to the surface during volcanic activity.

We give credit to the plant life on Earth for generating the large amount of oxygen. During the photosynthesis process, plants consume carbon dioxide and give off oxygen. The Ozone layer protects Earth and life from the extremes of solar radiation.

donut earth facts

Our atmosphere is also responsible for both short-term and long-term weather effects on the Earth. The magnetic field of Earth is incredibly powerful and also plays a big part in protecting our planet from the effects of solar wind. The slowing down process will have an effect on the length of our days, however, it will take around million years before we see a day change from 24 hours to 25 hours.

The solar wind distorts the magnetic field so that if you looked at it in space it would be a teardrop shape. The solar wind is a constant stream of charged particles that the sun ejects. This collusion causes the molecules in the air to glow and this is known as the Aurora Borealis or northern and southern lights.

Scientists studying geological records have seen that there is a magnetic reversal everyyears or so. If you look around our Earth you can see that we have an incredible amount of life that exists on both the land and within the waterways and seas.If you're looking to clear out a few friends or find some empty seats at the movie theater, there's no better tactic than bringing up flat earth theory.

It is the idea that the planet we live on isn't as round and ball-like as it may seem from photos, TV, film, and numerous other places. It's actually a flat world that is surrounded by Antarctica as a Game Of Thrones style ice wall keeping the disc earth together. There's a lot more than that and people have devoted their lives to it, so we're not going to cover everything. But there is an interesting new theory to bite into.

What If Earth Was Shaped Like a Donut?

The rise of YouTube, social media, and the internet, in general, has given Flat Earthers a chance to revive their thoughts and give the theory some new life -- and new layers all the time. Much like the ancient and classical eras saw people come up with their theories about the Earth's shape, modern theories have many different avenues they travel. The theory was posed on a Flat Earth Society discussion board by pioneering member, Varaug, who said: "I have a theory that the Earth is in fact shaped like a torus a doughnut shape.

However, light is curved so we cannot tell. How does the doughnut version Earth work? Here is a taste:. If light is curved so that we can't tell, then why would anyone suspect that the earth is shaped like a torus? Logically, it is possible for a torus-shaped planet to form see Q6so we cannot rule out the possibility that the Earth is shaped like a torus, and therefore the hypothesis must be considered as a potential model.

Gravity acts as it does in a RE model, and people are attracted to large masses. Imagine a donut. Imagine a jam donut. Gravity acts towards the jam. Lay a torch horizontal on a table and turn it on. Now, get a donut and place it on its side, with the hole perpendicular to the torch.

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The side that is illuminated by the torch is in day. Over 24 hours, the donut performs one complete revolution. Spin it half way around, this signifies the passing of 12 hours. Now, the side that WAS in day, is facing away from the torch and is in night. The side that WAS in night, is now facing the torch and is in day. In the same way that the RE does. The Earth does not follow a perfectly circular orbit, it is slightly elliptical. Also, the ellipse is slightly shifted so that one of the shorter edges is closer to the Sun than the opposite edge.Doughnuts are a type of fried dough confectionery or dessert food.

They are popular in many countries and are prepared in various forms as a sweet snack that can be homemade or purchased in bakeries, supermarket, food stalls, and franchised specialty vendors. Take a look below for 28 more fun and fascinating facts about doughnuts.

Doughnuts are usually deep fried from a flour dough, and typically either ring-shaped or a number of shapes without a hole, and are filled. Various batters and toppings can be used, such as sugar, chocolate, or maple glazing.

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Doughnuts may also include water, leavening, eggsmilk, sugar, oil shortening and natural or artificial flavors. The two most common types are the ring doughnut and the filled doughnut, which is injected with fruit preserves, cream, custard and other sweet fillings.

Once fried, doughnuts can be glazed with a sugar icing, spread with icing or chocolate on top, or topped with powdered sugar or sprinkles or fruit. While food resembling doughnuts has been found at many ancient sites, the earliest origins to the modern doughnuts are generally tracked back to the olykoek which Dutch settlers brought with them to early New York. According to anthropologist Paul R. Mullins, the first cookbook that mentioned doughnuts was an English volume which included doughnuts in an appendix of American recipes.

Hanson Gregory, an American, claimed to have invented the ring-shaped doughnut in aboard a lime-trading ship when he was 16 years old. Adolph Levitt, A Russian-born immigrant, invented the first automated doughnut machine in A type of doughnut is mentioned in the Bible.

On December 12,Shamus Petherick of Australia set the record for the most powdered doughnuts eaten in 3 minutes when he ate six. If a person added a doughnut a day to their regular diet, they would gain about one extra pound every 10 days.

According to one report, doughnuts have more trans fat than chocolate, peanut butter chocolate bars, and chips.

donut earth facts

A single doughnut will meet the maximum amount of trans fat for one day. National Donut Day is one the first Friday of every June.

The holiday was established in to celebrate the Salvation Army Workers who supplied free donuts to American troops during World War I.

The longest line of donuts every recorded stretched 1, feet 10 inches in Berlin on April 27, Even before people would trick or treat for candy, Halloween was celebrated by bobbing for donuts hung from a string. One reason doughnuts are so addictive is that they have lots of saccharine.

In one study, rats overwhelmingly prefer water sweetened with saccharin to cocaine, which demonstrated the addictiveness of sweets in general and doughnuts in particular.

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Whalers sometimes celebrated the 1,th barrel of whale oil by frying doughnuts in whale oil. The enduring stereotype of the police officer with a donut emerged in the s and s when the only places open during the graveyard shift were donut shops.

Donut shops were typically open late at night or very early in the morning as they prepared fresh donuts for the morning rush. Researchers have noted that the size of the hole in a doughnut correlates with the quality of the economy.

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Specifically, the worse the economy, the bigger the doughnut hole. Over 10 billion doughnuts are made in the United States each year. Spread the love.


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